Blackface, early musical theater, Jim Crow-era “popular” music.
Origins: Early to mid-19th century.
- Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America by Robert C. Toll, 1977.
- Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class by Eric Lott, 1993. ︎
- Inside the Minstrel Mask: Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy, Ed. by Brooks McNamara, Mel Watkins, 1996.
- Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop by W. T. Lhamon, Jr., 2000.
- Out of Sight: The Rise of African American Popular Music, 1889-1895 by Lynn Abbott, Doug Seroff, 2003.
- Blackface Cuba, 1840-1895 by Jill Lane, 2005.
Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern by Jayna Brown, 2008.
- Introducing Bert Williams: Burnt Cork, Broadway, and the Story of America's First Black Star by Camille F. Forbes, 2010. ︎
- Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy from Slavery to Hip-Hop by Jake Austen and Yuval Taylor, 2012.
- The Creolization of American Culture: William Sidney Mount and the Roots of Blackface Minstrelsy by Jeremy C. Smith, 2013.
- Ring Shout, Wheel About: The Racial Politics of Music and Dance in North American Slavery by Katrina Dyonne Thompson, 2014.︎
- Blackface Nation: Race, Reform, and Identity in American Popular Music, 1812-1925 by Brian Roberts, 2017. ︎
- The Blackface Minstrel Show in Mass Media: 20th Century Performances on Radio, Records, Film & Television by Tim Brooks, 2019.
- Exporting Jim Crow: Blackface Minstrelsy in South Africa and Beyond by Chinua Thelwell, 2020.
- Little Devil in America: Notes in Praise of Black Performance by Hanif Abdurraqib, forthcoming March 2021.
- Library of Congress’ Entry on Minstrel songs.
- Blackface Minstrelsy: American Experience Transcript by PBS.
- “Can American Popular Vocal Music Escape the Legacy of Blackface Minstrelsy?” by Lee B. Brown, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2013.
- “Recall That Ice Cream Truck Song? We Have Unpleasant News For You” by Theodore R. Johnson, III, NPR Code Switch, 2014.
- Follow-up: “Talking About Race And Ice Cream Leaves A Sour Taste For Some” by Theodore R. Johnson, III, NPR Code Switch, 2014.
- “On Blackface, Bert Williams, and Excellence” by Danielle Jackson, Longreads, October 2018.
- “Blackface and Hollywood: From Al Jolson to Judy Garland to Dave Chappelle” by Seth Abramovitch, THR, February 2019.
- “Race, Blacksound, and the (Re)Making of Musicological Discourse” by Matthew D. Morrison, Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 72 Issue 3, Fall 2019.
“Racial Representation in Popular Songs and Recordings of 1901” by Tim Brooks & Bill Doggett, ARSC Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, Fall 2019.
FILMS & SERIES
FILMS & SERIES
- Bamboozled by Spike Lee, 2000. 2hr 16 mins.
- Companion Piece: “Spike Lee’s Bamboozled Is Still Sharp, Stinging, and Utterly Vital” by K. Austin Collins, Vanity Fair, March 2020.
- “Explaining Blackface” by PBS’ Basic Black, 2019. 26 mins.
"Sam Lucas" by Sandra Graham, American Music Educational Project, 2019. 30m.
PODCASTS & RADIO
- “267: The Faces of Racism: A History of Blackface and Minstrelsy in American Culture” by BackStory, 35 mins, February 2019.
- “From Blackface To Blackfishing” by NPR’s Code Switch, 28 mins, February 2019.
- “Song of the South” Series by You Must Remember This, November 2019.
- Recommended Episode 148: “‘Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah,’ Minstrels in Hollywood and the Oscars,” 50m.